Beginners Guide: Realistic Pencil Drawing

Updated: 25 Jun 2020

Pen vs pencil drawing

Pencil drawing is monochromatic, meaning that it has a single hue (gray), but with different brightness values (from very light gray to very dark gray).

Brightness values with pencil, from light to dark

While there are many factors when it comes to drawing realism, here we will focus on the most important ones.

The 4 key factors for realistic pencil drawing are:

  1. Precision Drawing
  2. Brightness Values
  3. Edges
  4. Transitions

Note:

At the end of this tutorial, you will find some practical drawing tips.

Precision Drawing

Each object or figure has distinct characteristics and a unique form. Therefore, in order to produce a realistic result, the craft of drawing must be precise.

In order to draw in an accurate way, we need to understand what we are looking at and to remember that we draw what we see and NOT what we know.

Foreshortening:

When drawing in perspective (a set of guidelines for drawing in a realistic way), objects are subject to foreshortening.

In the following example, we know that the top part of a candle is round (circle), but when we draw what we see (when drawing a side view), the top part of the candle is actually elliptical:

Learning to look for foreshortening

Opposite phenomenon occurs when looking from above. The candle's long cylindrical body becomes shorter due to foreshortening:

Foreshortening views for a candle

Explanation:

In perspective, objects that are in front of the observer will look smaller as they are farther away.

Because they are in front of the observer, they will keep the ratio between width and height, meaning there will be no distortion, the object will look the same only smaller.

On the other hand, objects or surfaces along the line of sight will be distorted.

The reason is the observer angle of sight.

For example, a lake that might be round if we look at it from above, will look elliptical from a distance. The farther the lake will be, the shorter it will look in width but it will get much shorter in height than in width.

Lake foreshortening, photo by Peter H from Pixabay

Photo by Peter H from Pixabay

How to draw accurately:

Drawing is done in a two-dimensional way, on a flat paper. We disregard the third dimension, which is depth, and look at objects in a 2D way: width, height and angles.

The best way to start is to draw some random lines in an abstract way:

Random abstract shape, drawing with a pencil

After you quickly draw a random shape, put it in front of you and try to draw it from observation.

Your first attempt might resemble the original shape but the proportions will probably be off.

For your second attempt, use your pencil to see the angle of a line you choose to draw.

Checking the angle of the line

Now use the pencil to measure the angle of the other line and draw it on paper.

Using the pencil to measure a line angle

After finding the angle of the second line, it is time to find its length.

Use your pencil again to measure the angle of a construction line and draw that line to help you know where the second line ends.

Measuring angle with a pencil

Keep using your pencil to see the angles for each line and to build construction lines to help you figure out the length of each line.

Remember to erase and correct (that is the beauty of pencil drawing) until you get the desired shape.

Finishing to draw a shape

After you practice this exercise with several random shapes, you will feel comfortable drawing flat images from observation.

Tip: When two people look at an object from a different angle, they will draw it differently. The same happens with our eyes. Each eye looks at an object from a different angle. To draw accurately, close one eye when you are using a pencil to measure its dimensions and angles.

Drawing accurately by closing one eye

Next step is to gather some simple shapes like a cone, sphere, rectangle, pyramid and cylinder. Arrange the objects in a way you like and draw them.

Remember to pay attention to foreshortening and to use your pencil to draw the angles and to construct guidelines to determine length.

If you did not draw from direct observation yet, read my still life composition-drawing tutorial.

Once you feel comfortable drawing 3D objects from observation, you can try drawing figures, like cartoon characters.

The easiest way is to look at some coloring pages on your screen and try to reproduce them with a pencil. When you are happy with the result, you can use a pen to draw the outlines and you will have your own homemade coloring page.

Drawing coloring pages from observation

Drawing portraits is the next step in difficulty.

Tip:

When using just part of a paper for drawing, it is useful to border it with masking tape.

John Rambo initial pencil drawing

When the drawing is ready, remove the masking tape and you will have a straight border.

John James Rambo realistic pencil drawing

Remember:

Learning to draw accurately from observation is crucial for drawing realism.

It will give you the freedom to draw any subject or style.

Initial sketch of a mink

After you master drawing anything in proportion, you can deal with the other factors of drawing realism.

Drawing the head of the mink

Understanding brightness values is essential, and we will cover it next.

Realistic pencil drawing of a mink Realistic pencil drawing of a mink

Brightness Values

What are brightness values?

Brightness values or values are how light or dark any area of the painting is.

Brightness values ​​play a crucial role in creating the illusion of depth and three-dimensional forms on a two-dimensional surface.

What is pencil drawing?

Pencil drawing, at its most basic form is putting graphite particles on paper.

To do that, we use pencils.

Pencils come in different hardness levels. Hard pencils will only put a little amount of graphite particles on a paper, resulting in lighter/brighter value (H levels for hardness).

Pencils with H levels for light values

On the other hand, soft pencils will put a big amount of graphite on a paper, which result in a darker value (B levels for blackness).

pencils with b levels for dark values

How to use a pencil?

For any type of pencil, the amount of pressure applied while drawing determines the brightness value. More pressure will create a darker value and less pressure will create a lighter value.

It is recommended to use a number of drawing pencils with different darkness levels for different brightness values.

Sharp pencils are suitable for small details. For smooth transitions, sometimes, it is useful to use non-sharp pencils.

For a list of materials that I use for drawing, visit my essential pencil-drawing supply review.

How to practice?

Know your tools! Practice on creating gradual transitions in brightness values for each pencil grade you use.

That will help you determine how much pressure to use for each different brightness value and how dark or light you can go with each pencil grade:

Practice on transitions with different pencil grades

Brightness values can be altered using a kneaded eraser.

By gently tapping on a drawing surface, the kneaded eraser will collect graphite particles and therefore result in a lighter value.

Practice on transitions with kneaded eraser

How to determine brightness values?

Observation is the key to identifying the brightness values ​​of any object or image.

Each part of the drawing should be examined to see if it is darker or lighter than the object you are trying to draw and then corrected accordingly.

In addition, it is important to pay attention to the range and variety between the darkest areas and the brightest:

In other words, there should be enough contrast between dark and bright parts of the drawing in order for it to look rich and intense.

Tip:

Sometimes when looking at a complex object, especially with colors, it is hard to see how dark or light each area is.

To solve this problem, squint while observing, in order to lose focus.

When both eyes are partly closed you can focus on brightness values and disregard other distractions.

Exercise:

Try drawing your hand. Start by marking the drawing paper so you can always put your hand back at the same place.

How to mark the hand on the paper

Unless you are using a table lamp, difference in brightness values will be subtle and therefore, it is a great practice to master values.

Realistic hand pencil drawing

Arguably, the hardest form of drawing is portraiture.

It is critical to be accurate both in drawing the form AND in brightness values.

Female portrait pencil drawing, Alin Portrait pencil drawing, Alin

Edges

As opposed to comics drawing that is characterized by contour lines, which surround the figure, in realistic drawing with a pencil or in any other way, there are no lines at all.

The edge of an object is where its shape or surface ends. It can end in a sharp way or in a soft way but it is not a line!

Some objects, like fur or cloth, will have soft edges while other objects, like rocks or furniture will have hard edges.

Edges vs outlines in pencil drawing Edges vs outlines

To draw a soft edge is to create a gradual transition (gradient) in brightness values, from dark to light.

Depending on climate conditions and distance, far away objects might have soft edges.

Remember:

Use lines only as guidelines to draw an accurate form. Draw them lightly so they are easy to erase if needed.

How to draw soft edges:

There are many ways to draw soft edges (gradient from dark to light), depending on the effect you would like to achieve.

Hereby, three recommended ways:

How to draw soft edges with graphite Methods to draw soft edges

If you are not around your drawing equipment, you can always use a dry paper (like paper towel) or cloth to smooth edges.

How to use paper or cloth to smooth edges Soft edges with toilet paper

Note:

It is not recommended smudging a pencil drawing using one's finger. It can transfer body oils or sweat to the paper sheet.

Using soft edges for far away objects, will create a sense of depth.

Pencil drawing example:

Pencil drawing on 2 pigeons Soft edges for far object to add depth

Transitions

When drawing with a pencil, it is important to pay attention to brightness values (how dark or light each area is) and edges (how each area or surface ends, either with a soft edge or a hard edge).

Attention should also be paid to transitions.

On a certain surface, areas, which are closer to the light source, will be lighter and areas farther away from the light source will be darker, meaning the surface will have a gradual transition in values.

Therefore, it is important to see the brightness values of a particular surface compared to other surfaces but also the transitions of values ​​within the surface itself.

Pencil drawing example:

A portrait pencil drawing, Sharon Portrait pencil drawing, Sharon

Drawing Tips

Where to start drawing?

For right-handed painters, it is recommended to begin drawing from the upper left part of the paper sheet and gradually move to the lower right.

For left-handed painters, it is recommended to start at the upper right part of the paper.

In this way, the palm can rest on the blank surface of the drawing-paper and not smear what has already been drawn.

Pencil drawing from left to right Drawing from left to right

Where to put the light source?

For right-handed painters, it is recommended that the lighting be placed on the left side so that the palm will not block the source of light and you can see little details while drawing.

For left-handed painters, lighting will be placed on the right side.

Pencil drawing of a wildebeest Pencil drawing of a wildebeest

How to hold a pencil?

By using the thumb, we can move the pencil body upwards and use it as a measuring device.

When releasing the thumb, the pencil will be back in place for drawing:

How to use a pencil for measuring and drawing

How to avoid smearing?

In order to avoid smearing the drawing or transfer body oils or sweat to the drawing-paper, it is advisable to place a blank sheet of paper under the drawing hand, so that the palm is not placed on the drawing-paper.

How to draw without smearing

Another option is to use a transparent paper sheet under the drawing hand, that way smearing is avoided and the drawing can be seen.

How to use your drawing equipment?

It is best not to press hard when drawing in order not to damage the paper sheet you are drawing on.

Draw as if you are using a paintbrush, softly and gently. You will get smooth results and you do not need to use smoothing tools.

Use thick paper for your artworks, it is more durable. Thin paper sheets are great for practice.

I prefer paper with at least 150 g/m thickness, ideally 180 g/m or more:

How to know the width of a paper sheet

For more tips, check out my fine art painters gallery for painting tips by professional painters.

Pen Drawing

While there are no lines in nature or in realistic pencil drawing, pen drawing is characterized by drawing lines.

A pen drawing of a tree Drawing using lines

It is recommended to use a technical pen (fineliner) for drawing.

For recommended pen brands to use, visit my review on drawing pens for artists.

A pen has a fixed brightness value!

The way to create the illusion of different brightness values ​​when drawing with a pen is to create more lines in the same area for a darker value and fewer lines for a lighter value.

Tree drawing with a pen Brightness values using lines

If you like drawing with pens, you might like my tutorials on how to draw trees and how to draw flowers.

Summary

Since all materials are made of molecules, they will never be one hundred percent smooth.

Light travels as a wave, therefore shadows will not be completely sharp.

For these reasons, there are no lines in nature!

When drawing with pencils, it is all about transitions in brightness values and different types of edges.

That said, in art, it is possible to create realistic looking drawings, using only lines, by creating the illusion of transitions, brightness values and edges.

For an in-depth article about drawing and painting realism, visit The 8 Key Factors for Painting Realism.

To understand and add depth when drawing, visit my guide for creating the illusion of depth in art, it includes 15 proven ways to draw depth, with many examples!