Beginners Guide: Realistic Pencil Drawing
Updated: 07 Jan 2020
Pencil drawing is monochromatic, meaning that it has a single hue, but with different brightness values.
While there are many factors when it comes to drawing realism, here we will focus on the most important ones.
The 4 key factors for realistic pencil drawing are:
- Precision Drawing
- Brightness Values
Each object or figure has distinct characteristics and a unique form. Therefore, in order to produce a realistic result, the craft of drawing must be precise.
In order to draw in an accurate way, we need to understand what we are looking at and to remember that we draw what we see and NOT what we know.
When drawing in perspective (a set of guidelines for drawing in a realistic way), objects are subject to foreshortening.
In the following example, we know that the top part of a candle is round, but when we draw what we see (when drawing a side view), the top part of the candle is actually elliptical:
Opposite phenomenon occurs when looking from above. The candle's long cylindrical body becomes shorter due to foreshortening:
In perspective, objects that are in front of the observer will look smaller as they are farther away.
Because they are in front of the observer, they will keep the ratio between width and height, meaning there will be no distortion, the object will look the same only smaller.
On the other hand, objects or surfaces along the line of sight will be distorted, meaning their height will become shorter than their width.
The reason is the observer angle of sight.
By "along the line of sight" means on the ground for example. Another example is when looking at a table. Its legs will be in front of the observer but the table surface is along the line of sight and will be distorted, meaning subject to foreshortening.
For example, a lake that might be round if looked from above, will look elliptical from a distance. The farther the lake will be, the shorter it will look in width but it will get much shorter in height than in width.
Photo by Peter H from Pixabay
How to draw accurately:
Drawing is done in a two-dimensional way, on a flat paper. We disregard the third dimension, which is depth, and look at objects in a 2D way: width, height and angles.
The best way to start is to draw some random lines in an abstract way:
After you quickly draw a random shape, put it in front of you and try to draw it from observation.
Your first attempt might resemble the original shape but the proportions will probably be off.
For your second attempt, use your pencil to see the angle of a line you choose to draw.
Now use the pencil to measure the angle of the other line and draw it on paper.
After finding the angle of the second line, it is time to find its length.
Use your pencil again to measure the angle of a construction line and draw that line to help you know where the second line ends.
Keep using your pencil to see the angles for each line and to build construction lines to help you figure out the length of each line.
Remember to erase and correct (that is the beauty of pencil drawing) until you get the desired shape.
After you practice this exercise with several random shapes, you will feel more comfortable drawing flat images from observation.
Tip: When two people look at an object from a different angle, they will draw it differently. The same happens with our eyes. Each eye look at an object from a different angle. To draw accurately, close one eye when you are using a pencil to measure its dimensions and angles.
Next step is to gather some simple shapes like a cone, sphere, rectangle, pyramid and cylinder. Arrange the objects in a way you like and draw them.
Remember to pay attention to foreshortening and to use your pencil to draw the angles and to construct guidelines to determine length.
Once you feel comfortable drawing 3D objects from observation, you can try drawing figures, like cartoon characters.
The easiest way is to look at some coloring pages on your screen and try to reproduce them with a pencil. When you are happy with the result, you can use a pen to draw the outlines and you will have your own homemade coloring page.
Drawing live models (portraits) is the next step in difficulty.
Learning to draw accurately from observation is crucial for drawing realism.
It will give you the freedom to draw any subject or style.
After you master drawing anything in proportion, you can deal with the other factors of drawing realism.
Understanding brightness values is essential, and we will cover it next.
What are brightness values?
Brightness values or values are how light or dark any area of the painting is.
Brightness values play a crucial role in creating the illusion of depth and three-dimensional forms on a two-dimensional surface.
What is pencil drawing?
Pencil drawing, at its most basic form is putting graphite particles on a paper.
To do that, we use pencils.
Pencils come in different hardness levels. Hard pencils will only put a little amount of graphite particles on a paper, resulting in lighter/brighter value.
On the other hand, soft pencils will put a big amount of graphite on a paper, which result in a darker value.
How to use a pencil?
For any type of pencil, the amount of pressure applied while drawing determines the brightness value. More pressure will create a darker value and less pressure will create a lighter value.
It is recommended to use a number of drawing pencils with different darkness levels for different brightness values.
Sharp pencils are suitable for small details. For smooth transitions, sometimes, it is useful to use non-sharp pencils.
For a list of materials that I use for drawing, visit my essential pencil-drawing supply review.
How to practice?
Know your tools! Practice on creating gradual transitions in brightness values for each pencil grade you use.
That will help you determine how much pressure to use for each different brightness values and how dark or light you can go with each pencil grade:
Brightness values can be altered using a kneaded eraser.
By gently tapping on a drawing surface, the kneaded eraser will collect graphite particles and therefore result in a lighter value.
How to determine brightness values?
Observation is the key to identifying the brightness values of any object or image.
Each part of the drawing should be examined to see if it is darker or lighter than the object you are trying to draw and then corrected accordingly.
In addition, it is important to pay attention to the range and variety between the darkest areas and the brightest:
- If the range or difference between dark and light areas is small, the drawing may appear flat.
- When the range between dark and bright areas is large, the drawing will be noticeable and will have volume and depth.
In other words, there should be enough contrast between dark and bright parts of the drawing in order for it to look rich and intense.
Sometimes when looking at a complex object, especially with colors, it is hard to see how dark or light each area is.
To solve this problem, squint while observing, in order to lose focus.
When both eyes are partly closed you can focus on brightness values and disregard other distractions.
Try drawing your hand. Start by marking the drawing paper so you can always put your hand back at the same place.
Unless you are using a table lamp, difference in brightness values will be subtle and therefore, it is a great practice to master values.
Arguably, the hardest form of drawing is portraiture.
It is critical to be accurate both in precision AND brightness values.
As opposed to comics drawing that is characterized by contour lines, which surround the figure, in realistic drawing with a pencil or in any other way, there are no lines at all.
The edge of an object is where its shape or surface ends. It can end in a sharp way or in a soft way but it is not a line!
Some objects, like fur or cloth, will have soft edges while other objects, like rocks or furniture will have hard edges.
To draw a soft edge is to create a gradual transition (gradient) in brightness values, from dark to light.
Depending on climate conditions and distance, far away objects might have soft edges.
Use lines only as guidelines to draw an accurate form. Draw them lightly so they are easy to erase if needed.
How to draw edges:
There are many ways to draw soft edges (gradient from dark to light), depending on the effect you would like to achieve.
Hereby, three recommended ways:
If you are not around your drawing equipment, you can always use a dry paper (like paper towel) or cloth to smooth edges.
It is not recommended smudging a pencil drawing using one's finger. It can transfer body oils or sweat to the paper sheet.
Using soft edges for far away objects, will create a sense of depth.
Pencil drawing example:
When drawing with a pencil, it is important to pay attention to the brightness values (how dark or light each area is) and edges (how each area or surface ends, either with a soft edge or a hard edge).
Attention should also be paid to transitions.
On a certain surface, areas, which are closer to the light source, will be lighter and areas farther away from the light source will be darker, meaning the surface will have a gradual transition in values.
Therefore, it is important to see the brightness values of a particular surface compared to other surfaces but also the transitions of values within the surface itself.
Pencil drawing example:
Bonus Drawing Tips
Where to start drawing?
For right-handed painters, it is recommended to begin drawing from the upper left part of the painting and gradually move to the lower right.
For left-handed painters, it is recommended to start at the upper right part of the painting.
In this way, the palm can rest on the blank surface of the drawing-paper and not smear what has already been drawn.
Where to put the light source?
For right-handed painters, it is recommended that the lighting be placed on the left side so that the palm will not block the source of light and you can see little details while drawing.
For left-handed painters, lighting will be placed on the right side.
How to avoid smearing?
In order to avoid smearing the drawing or transfer body oils or sweat to the drawing-paper, it is advisable to place a blank sheet of paper under the drawing hand, so that the palm is not placed on the drawing-paper.
Another option is to use a transparent paper sheet under the drawing hand, that way smearing is avoided and the drawing can be seen.
For more tips, check out my artist of the month gallery for painting tips by professional painters.
While there are no lines in nature or in realistic pencil drawing, pen drawing is characterized by drawing lines.
It is recommended to use a technical pen (fineliner) for drawing.
For recommended pen brands to use, visit my review on drawing pens for artists.
A pen has a fixed brightness value!
The way to create the illusion of different brightness values when drawing with a pen is to create more lines in the same area for a darker value and fewer lines for a lighter value.
If you like drawing with pens, you might like my tutorial on how to draw flowers.
Since all materials are made of atoms and molecules, they will never be one hundred percent smooth.
Light travel in waves, therefore shadows will not be completely sharp.
For these reasons, there are no lines in nature!
It is all about transitions in brightness values and different types of edges when it comes to drawing with a pencil.
That said, in art, it is possible to create realistic looking drawings, using only lines, by creating the illusion of transitions, brightness values and edges.
For an in-depth article about drawing and painting realism, visit The 8 Key Factors for Painting Realism.
To understand and add depth when drawing, visit my 15 proven ways to create the illusion of depth in art.